Writing a CV is one of the most important steps in your job search. A good CV or resume can get you invited to interviews and increase your chances of getting hired.”

Your CV should be transparent and contain all relevant information about your experience, education, and skills. In this online guide, you will learn how to write a CV that will catch the attention of recruiters. You will learn how to choose the correct CV format, when to use the Europass CV, what information to include, and how to avoid the most common mistakes when writing a CV, also known as a CV (Curriculum Vitae).

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How to write a CV and where to start

Determine career objectives for your CV

Before you start writing your CV, it is important to define your career objectives. Think about the field you want to work in and the types of employers you are interested in. This will help you focus on the most relevant information for your desired job. Setting career objectives will also help you choose the right CV format and highlight critical skills and experience.

Choose the right CV format

There are different types of CVs, each with advantages and disadvantages. The most common formats are the chronological, functional, and Europass CV. Choosing the right format depends on your work experience and career goals.

  • Chronological CV: The most commonly used format, showing your work experience in reverse chronological order.
  • Functional CV: Focuses on your skills and competencies, not on the chronological order of your work experience.
  • Europass CV: A standardized CV format that is useful when applying for jobs and training within the EU.

Collect CV information

Before you start writing, gather all the necessary information to include in your CV. This includes:

  • Personal details: Name, surname, address, phone number, email.
  • Education: Details of your education, including start and end dates, institution and course.
  • Work experience: List all previous employment with a description of duties and achievements.
  • Skills: Both soft and hard skills are relevant to the desired job.
  • Certifications and additional training: Courses, seminars, conferences you have attended.
  • Photograph (optional): Professional picture in the work environment.

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Mandatory elements you have to include in a CV

Personal details in the CV

Always include your full name, residential address, and date of birth on your CV. Include all contact numbers and email addresses so employers can easily contact you. Ensure you include all of the above information. Otherwise, you may give the employer the impression that you are sloppy or did not take enough time to apply from the start.

Summary of career objectives on your CV

A summary is a short paragraph at the beginning of your CV that describes your career objectives and key qualifications. Keep it clear and concise, as this is the first thing an employer reads. Include information about what you are looking for in your next job and why you are the right choice for the job.

Work experience on your CV

Your experience is a very important part of your CV. Always include what you have done so far, describe your tasks or responsibilities and don’t forget to mention the successes you have achieved in your work. Include your work experience in reverse chronological order on your CV (i.e., your most recent job should come first), omitting those that are not the most relevant to the job you are applying for. This will let the recruiter know that you are not sending around a generic CV but have adapted it to the job advertisement.

Education on your CV

Another important part of a good CV is information about your educational qualifications, which should also be listed in reverse chronological order. Add the start and end of the specific training, the educational institution, the program, and the course. How to write a CV to make your education stand out? It should be listed in such a way that it clearly shows your academic career and significant achievements.

Additional education and certificates on your CV

In addition to formal education, various certificates and licenses are a good indicator that you, as an employee, are keen to further your education and training in your spare time. Therefore, be sure to include the various courses, seminars, and conferences you have attended on your CV. These additional elements can show the employer that you are proactive and willing to continue learning.

Skills on your CV

Skills are an important part of a CV because they show the employer what you can do and how you can contribute to the success of the company. Divide them into soft skills (communication, organizational) and hard skills (technical, job-specific). Highlight those skills that are most relevant to the job you are applying for.

Photo on CV (optional)

Job adverts increasingly include a request for a CV with a picture, so we encourage you to add one yourself. It is known that more than half of employers recommend that you include a photo on your CV. This helps to create a more authentic and attractive CV. Be careful when choosing a photograph; use a professional portrait in a working environment.

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How to write a chronological CV

When to choose a chronological CV

The chronological CV is the most commonly used format and is ideal for those who have extensive work experience in one industry. It is suitable if your target job is an extension of your previous work experience and if you can clearly show career progression over time.

Building a chronological CV

A chronological CV is constructed to show your career path in reverse chronological order. This means that you list your most recent job first and then work backward. It is important to highlight titles, responsibilities, and achievements from previous jobs and previous employers.

CV example: chronological

John Smith

24 High Street, London, UK | | 020 7946 0857


Experienced sales consultant with over a decade of experience in sales and key account management. I am looking for an opportunity to further my career as a Key Account Administrator.

Work experience

  • Sales Manager, Company ABC, London (2018 – present)
    • Sales Team Leader
    • Developing sales strategies
    • Increase sales by 20% annually
  • Sales Consultant, Company XYZ, London (2012 – 2018)
    • Advising clients
    • Increasing customer base
    • Successful closing of sales


  • Master’s degree in Economics, University of London (2010 – 2012)
  • Diploma in Business Administration, University of London (2006 – 2010)

Additional education and certificates

  • Advanced Selling Course, 2020
  • Certificate in Sales Team Management, 2018


  • Communication skills
  • Team leadership
  • Developing sales strategies
  • Analytical skills


(professional photography)

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How to write a functional CV

When to choose a functional CV

A functional CV is suitable for those who have a variety of work experience or little work experience. It is best suited to students, first-time job seekers, and those looking to change career paths.

Functional CV structure

A functional CV focuses on your skills, abilities, and qualifications, not on the chronological order of your work experience. Skills and competencies are organized by category, allowing the employer to quickly identify your qualifications.

CV example: functional

Emily Johnson

42 Market Road, Manchester, UK | | 0161 999 8856


A motivated and versatile individual with experience in several different fields. I am looking for an opportunity to work in the marketing field where I can use my organizational and communication skills.

Skills and competences

  • Communication skills
    • Excellent written and oral communication skills
    • Experience in public speaking and presentations
  • Organisational skills
    • Project management and event organization skills
    • Experience in coordinating multiple tasks simultaneously
  • Technical skills
    • Proficiency with MS Office suite
    • Basic knowledge of programming and use of CRM systems

Work experience

  • T waitress, Restaurant ABC, Maribor (2019 – today)
    • Customer service
    • Inventory management
  • Accountant, Company XYZ, Maribor (2017 – 2019)
    • Management of accounting records
    • Preparation of financial reports


  • Diploma in Marketing, University of Maribor (2013 – 2017)

Additional trainings and certificates

  • Digital Marketing Course, 2020
  • Certificate in Business Communication, 2018


(professional photography)

How to write a Europass CV

Benefits of a Europass CV

The Europass CV is a standardized format that is useful when applying for jobs and training within the EU. It offers a clear and structured presentation of your experience and qualifications, making it easier for employers to read and compare candidates.

Elements of a Europass CV

The Europass CV includes the following elements:

  • Personal details
  • Desired job or professional field
  • Work experience
  • Education and training
  • Knowledge and competencies acquired outside the formal education system
  • Foreign language skills
  • Attachments (certificates, diplomas, certificates)

Vitae example: Europass

Andrew Brown

15 King’s Avenue, Birmingham, UK | | 0121 643 5687

Personal Information

  • Name: Andrew Brown
  • Address: 15 King’s Avenue, Birmingham, UK
  • E-mail:
  • Phone: 0121 643 5687

Wanted employment

  • Key Account Manager in an international company

Work experience

  • Project Manager, ABC Company, London (2016 – present)
    • International Project Management
    • Successfully completed projects with a value of over EUR 1 million
  • Client Manager, Company XYZ, London (2012 – 2016)
    • Managed a portfolio of key clients
    • Increased customer satisfaction by 15%


  • Master’s degree in Business Administration, University of London (2010 – 2012)
  • Diploma in Economics, University of London (2006 – 2010)

Knowledge and competences

  • Scientific skills
  • Project management
  • Analytical skills
  • Languages: English (C1), German (B2)


  • Certificate in Project Management, 2018
  • Diploma in Business Administration, 2012

How to write the best CV

Customise your CV for each application

Each application requires a personalized CV. Ensure your CV is tailored to the specific job you are applying for. Highlight the skills and experience that are most relevant to the employer.

Highlight achievements on your CV

In addition to describing the job tasks you have performed, highlight your achievements. Specific achievements will demonstrate your value to the employer, such as increased sales, successfully completed projects, or awards received.

Make your CV transparent

A clear and transparent CV is easier to read and more attractive to employers. Use clear headings, lists, and enough blank space to make it easy to read.

Check your CV for language accuracy

Make sure your CV is free of grammatical and typographical errors. Incorrect grammar or spelling can leave a bad impression on an employer and reduce your chances of getting an interview.

Common mistakes when writing a CV

CVs that are too long or too short

The optimal length of a CV is two pages. CVs that are too long may put off an employer, while CVs that are too short may not include all the relevant information.

Important information to include in a CV

Omit information that is not relevant to the job you are applying for. Focus on those experiences and skills that are relevant to the employer.

Inappropriate email addresses on a CV

Use a professional email address that includes your name. E-mail addresses such as “” may put off an employer.

Generic content on a CV

Each CV should be tailored to the specific application. Generic CVs not tailored to the specific job are less likely to attract the employer’s attention.

How to write a CV quickly and efficiently

Writing a CV is challenging, but following these tips and rules can create a compelling CV to help you in your job search. Always tailor your CV to the job and make sure it is clear and linguistically correct. This will increase your chances of being invited for an interview and getting a successful job.

If you need assistance with writing a CV, search for “CV tutor Liverpool” or “private CV teacher Birmingham” on platforms like meet’n’learn. You’ll find tutors who specialize in helping with CV writing. Do you prefer learning in a group setting? Search for “CV writing classes Leeds” or “resume writing lessons London” to find local classes, community colleges, and workshops in your area.

Faqs on how to write a CV

1. How to write a CV that stands out

To write a CV that stands out, ensure it is clear, highlights achievements, and tailors the content to the job.

2. How to create a professional CV?

Create a professional CV with a clear structure, relevant work experience and education, and no grammatical errors.

3. What is a functional CV?

A functional CV highlights your skills and competencies, not the chronological order of your work experience.

4. When to use a Europass CV?

Use your Europass CV when applying for jobs or training courses within the European Union.

5. What are the most common mistakes when writing a CV?

The most common CV writing mistakes are CVs that are too long or short, irrelevant information, and inappropriate email addresses.

6. Is it necessary to include a photo on the CV?

A photograph is not compulsory, but many employers recommend it for a more personal presentation.

7. How to highlight achievements on a CV?

Highlight achievements on your CV with specific numbers and examples that demonstrate your success.

8. How to tailor a CV for a specific job?

Tailor your CV to the specific job by highlighting relevant skills and experience and adjusting the summary of career objectives.


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Avoid common CV writing mistakes: improve your application with concrete tips and examples.