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Antibiotics: What Are They and How Do They Work?

Antibiotics are essential medicines used to treat infections caused by bacteria. By either killing bacteria or stopping their reproduction, antibiotics help the body overcome infections. Antibiotics, introduced to medicine in the 20th century, have significantly reduced deaths from diseases like tuberculosis and pneumonia. However, they are ineffective against common cold or flu viruses. Therefore, we …


Fungi Study Guide: Study Yeasts, Molds, Lichens, Symbiosis and Mycorrhizae

Fungi, a unique group of living organisms separate from plants and animals, include forms like yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. They are vital and indispensable in breaking down dead material, making nutrients available in the environment, and forming beneficial partnerships with plants. For instance, mycorrhiza enhances plant root absorption of water and nutrients. This introduction will …


Homeostasis Explained: Balancing Body Temperature and Hormones

Homeostasis is an important biological principle that ensures stable internal conditions regardless of external changes. This process, essential for health and survival, involves complex interactions between hormones, osmoregulation, and acid-base balance. By regulating body temperature and blood glucose levels, homeostasis supports bodily functions and equilibrium. Understanding how homeostasis works offers insights into the human body’s …


Text Types and Styles of Writing: Complete Guide

Let’s start with the basics: different text types, also called text types, are key to good communication. We often encounter texts of different forms and purposes in everyday life and work. Knowing these differences helps us to understand others better. We will introduce the basic types of texts: fiction, non-fiction, spoken, written, formal and informal. …


Literary Genres and Types: Complete Study Guide

Literary genres are the basic categories for classifying literary works. These categories are important because they allow us to understand and classify literary works according to their characteristics, such as form, style, theme, and purpose. Literary genres are divided into three main groups: lyric, which comprises poetic works expressing emotions; epic, which includes narrative works …


Anaphora, Epiphora, Metaphor and Other Literary Devices in Writing

Literary devices can enhance your essay and composition by adding depth and emotion. This guide will explain metaphor, simile, anaphora, epiphora, palindrome, alliteration, and other vital literary devices. You’ll learn their definitions and purposes and see them applied in the literature. Mastering these tools will help you improve your writing and enrich the reader’s experience. …


Idioms, Euphemisms, Expressions, Proverbs, and Other Phrases: Study Guide

Phraseology studies phrases, including idioms, euphemisms, slang, proverbs, clichés, jargon, phrasal verbs, and fixed expressions, which play vital roles in language. This field examines how these elements affect communication and reflect cultural identity. Knowing more about phraseology helps improve speaking and writing by helping one understand the subtle ways language works. Improving your essay writing …